Typically a VSAT station consist of 2 major equipment – ODU(Outdoor Unit) which is consist of an antenna – feed horn – rft (buc – lnb) and pedestal (antenna mounting) and IDU (modem).

When a remote VSAT transmits data, first the modem will convert digital signal become a radio frequency signal, then it will convert to designated RF Band then Amplify using BUC. At reverse, when receive data the RF Signal receive using feed horn n pre amplify using LNB then convert to low frekuensi RF (IF) and decode using modem.

in Point 2 Point Topology, 2 Earth VSAT Station will communicate each other trough a transponder in satellite, one channel (carrier) frequency used to transmit and one channel (carrier) frequency used to receive. this topology used to call SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier), one channel for receive and one channel to transmit.

 

in advance configuration commonly used today is VSAT IP, itu consist of one sentral earth station called HUB VSAT and many remotes site. this kind of topology called VSAT Star Topology, one as central and many remotes connected to the central. usually, for central earth station (HUB VSAT) it’s consist of a big antenna, a high power RFT (BUC/HPA – LNB/LNA), modem and several devices to organize and controlling all remotes connected. in the remotes side, it’s just like common vsat remote, it’s consist of small antenna, feed horn, RFT (BUC – LNB) and a modem.

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