Posts tagged hacking

10+ things you should know about rootkits


By Michael Kassner, Techrepublic

Malware-based rootkits fuel a multibillion dollar spyware industry by stealing individual or corporate financial information. If that weren’t bad enough, rootkit-based botnets generate untold amounts of spam. Here’s a look at what rootkits are and what to do about them.

Rootkits are complex and ever changing, which makes it difficult to understand exactly what you’re dealing with. Even so, I’d like to take a stab at explaining them, so that you’ll have a fighting chance if you’re confronted with one.

#1: What is a rootkit?

Breaking the term rootkit into the two component words, root and kit, is a useful way to define it. Root is a UNIX/Linux term that’s the equivalent of Administrator in Windows. The word kit denotes programs that allow someone to obtain root/admin-level access to the computer by executing the programs in the kit — all of which is done without end-user consent or knowledge.


#2: Why use a rootkit?

Rootkits have two primary functions: remote command/control (back door) and software eavesdropping. Rootkits allow someone, legitimate or otherwise, to administratively control a computer. This means executing files, accessing logs, monitoring user activity, and even changing the computer’s configuration. Therefore, in the strictest sense, even versions of VNC are rootkits. This surprises most people, as they consider rootkits to be solely malware, but in of themselves they aren’t malicious at all.

One famous (or infamous, depending on your viewpoint) example of rootkit use was Sony BMG’s attempt to prevent copyright violations. Sony BMG didn’t tell anyone that it placed DRM software on home computers when certain CDs were played. On a scary note, the rootkit hiding technique Sony used was so good not one antivirus or anti-spyware application detected it.

#3: How do rootkits propagate?

Rootkits can’t propagate by themselves, and that fact has precipitated a great deal of confusion. In reality, rootkits are just one component of what is called a blended threat. Blended threats typically consist of three snippets of code: a dropper, loader, and rootkit.

The dropper is the code that gets the rootkit’s installation started. Activating the dropper program usually entails human intervention, such as clicking on a malicious email link. Once initiated, the dropper launches the loader program and then deletes itself. Once active, the loader typically causes a buffer overflow, which loads the rootkit into memory.

Blended threat malware gets its foot in the door through social engineering, exploiting known vulnerabilities, or even brute force. Here are two examples of some current and successful exploits:

* Instant Messenger (IM) — One approach requires computers with IM installed (not that much of a stretch). If the appropriate blended threat gains a foothold on just one computer using IM, it takes over the IM client, sending out messages containing malicious links to everyone on the contact list. When the recipient clicks on the link (social engineering, as it’s from a friend), that computer becomes infected and has a rootkit on it as well.
* Rich content — The newest approach is to insert the blended threat malware into rich-content files, such as PDF documents. Just opening a malicious PDF file will execute the dropper code, and it’s all over.

#4: User-mode rootkits

There are several types of rootkits, but we’ll start with the simplest one. User-mode rootkits run on a computer with administrative privileges. This allows user-mode rootkits to alter security and hide processes, files, system drivers, network ports, and even system services. User-mode rootkits remain installed on the infected computer by copying required files to the computer’s hard drive, automatically launching with every system boot.

Sadly, user-mode rootkits are the only type that antivirus or anti-spyware applications even have a chance of detecting. One example of a user-mode rootkit is Hacker Defender. It’s an old rootkit, but it has an illustrious history. If you read the link about Hacker Defender, you will learn about Mark Russinovich, his rootkit detection tool called Rootkit Revealer, and his cat-and-mouse struggle with the developer of Hacker Defender.

#5: Kernel-mode rootkit

Malware developers are a savvy bunch. Realising that rootkits running in user-mode can be found by rootkit detection software running in kernel-mode, they developed kernel-mode rootkits, placing the rootkit on the same level as the operating system and rootkit detection software. Simply put, the OS can no longer be trusted. One kernel-mode rootkit that’s getting lots of attention is the Da IOS rootkit, developed by Sebastian Muniz and aimed at Cisco’s IOS operating system.

Instability is the one downfall of a kernel-mode rootkit. If you notice that your computer is blue-screening for other than the normal reasons, it just might be a kernel-mode rootkit.

#6: User-mode/kernel-mode hybrid rootkit

Rootkit developers, wanting the best of both worlds, developed a hybrid rootkit that combines user-mode characteristics (easy to use and stable) with kernel-mode characteristics (stealthy). The hybrid approach is very successful and the most popular rootkit at this time.

#7: Firmware rootkits

Firmware rootkits are the next step in sophistication. This type of rootkit can be any of the other types with an added twist; the rootkit can hide in firmware when the computer is shut down. Restart the computer, and the rootkit reinstalls itself. The altered firmware could be anything from microprocessor code to PCI expansion card firmware. Even if a removal program finds and eliminates the firmware rootkit, the next time the computer starts, the firmware rootkit is right back in business. John Heasman has a great paper called “Implementing and Detecting a PCI Rootkit” (PDF).

#8: Virtual rootkits

Virtual rootkits are a fairly new and innovative approach. The virtual rootkit acts like a software implementation of hardware sets in a manner similar to that used by VMware. This technology has elicited a great deal of apprehension, as virtual rootkits are almost invisible. The Blue Pill is one example of this type of rootkit. To the best of my knowledge, researchers haven’t found virtual rootkits in the wild. Ironically, this is because virtual rootkits are complex and other types are working so well.

#9: Generic symptoms of rootkit infestation

Rootkits are frustrating. By design, it’s difficult to know if they are installed on a computer. Even experts have a hard time but hint that installed rootkits should get the same consideration as other possible reasons for any decrease in operating efficiency. Sorry for being vague, but that’s the nature of the beast. Here’s a list of noteworthy symptoms:

* If the computer locks up or fails to respond to any kind of input from the mouse or keyboard, it could be due to an installed kernel-mode rootkit.
* Settings in Windows change without permission. Examples of this could be the screensaver changing or the taskbar hiding itself.
* Web pages or network activities appear to be intermittent or function improperly due to excessive network traffic.

If the rootkit is working correctly, most of these symptoms aren’t going to be noticeable. By definition, good rootkits are stealthy. The last symptom (network slowdown) should be the one that raises a flag. Rootkits can’t hide traffic increases, especially if the computer is acting as a spam relay or participating in a DDoS attack.

#10: Polymorphism

I debated whether to include polymorphism as a topic, since it’s not specific to rootkits. But it’s amazing technology that makes rootkits difficult to find. Polymorphism techniques allow malware such as rootkits to rewrite core assembly code, which makes using antivirus/anti-spyware signature-based defences useless. Polymorphism even gives behavioural-based (heuristic) defences a great deal of trouble. The only hope of finding rootkits that use polymorphism is technology that looks deep into the operating system and then compares the results to a known good baseline of the system.

#11: Detection and removal

You all know the drill, but it’s worth repeating. Be sure to keep antivirus/anti-spyware software (and in fact, every software component of the computer) up-to-date. That will go a long way toward keeping malware away. Keeping everything current is hard, but a tool such as Secunia’s Vulnerability Scanning program can help.

Detection and removal depends on the sophistication of the rootkit. If the rootkit is of the user-mode variety, any one of the following rootkit removal tools will most likely work:

* F-Secure Blacklight
* RootkitRevealer
* Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool
* ProcessGuard
* Rootkit Hunter (Linux and BSD)

The problem with these tools is that you can’t be sure they’ve removed the rootkit. Albeit more labour-intensive, using a bootable CD, such as BartPE, with an antivirus scanner will increase the chances of detecting a rootkit, simply because rootkits can’t obscure their tracks when they aren’t running. I’m afraid that the only way to know for sure is to have a clean computer, take a baseline, and then use an application like EnCase to check for any additional code.

Final thoughts

Opinions vary when it comes to rootkit removal, as discussed in the NetworkWorld article “Experts divided over rootkit detection and removal”. Although the article is two years old, the information is still relevant. There’s some hope, though: Intel’s Trusted Platform Module (TPM) has been cited as a possible solution to malware infestation. The problem with TPM is that it’s somewhat controversial. Besides, it will take years before sufficient numbers of computers have processors with TPM.

If you’re looking for additional information, I recommend the book ROOTKITS: Subverting the Windows Kernel, by Gary Hoglund and James Butler, of HPGary.


Samurai Web Testing Framework – Web Application Security LiveCD


Most penetration tests are focused on either network attacks or web application attacks. Given this separation, many pen testers themselves have understandably followed suit, specializing in one type of test or the other. While such specialization is a sign of a vibrant, healthy penetration testing industry, tests focused on only one of these aspects of a target environment often miss the real business risks of vulnerabilities discovered and exploited by determined and skilled attackers. By combining web app attacks such as SQL injection, Cross-Site Scripting, and Remote File Includes with network attacks such as port scanning, service compromise, and client-side exploitation, the bad guys are significantly more lethal. Penetration testers and the enterprises who use their services need to understand these blended attacks and how to measure whether they are vulnerable to them. This session provides practical examples of penetration tests that combine such attack vectors, and real-world advice for conducting such tests against your own organization.

The Samurai project team is happy to announce the release of a development version of the Samurai Web Testing Framework. This release is currently a fully functional linux environment that has a number of the tools pre-installed. Our hope is that people who are interested in making this the best live CD for web testing will provide feedback for what they would like to see included on the CD.

The Samurai Web Testing Framework is a live linux environment that has been pre-configured to function as a web pen-testing environment. The CD contains the best of the open source and free tools that focus on testing and attacking websites. In developing this environment, we have based our tool selection on the tools we use in our security practice. We have included the tools used in all four steps of a web pen-test.

Starting with reconnaissance, we have included tools such as the Fierce domain scanner and Maltego. For mapping, we have included tools such WebScarab and ratproxy. We then chose tools for discovery. These would include w3af and burp. For exploitation, the final stage, we included BeEF, AJAXShell and much more. This CD also includes a pre-configured wiki, set up to be the central information store during your pen-test.


read more here

or download here

MetaSploit an Exploits Framework Build on Ruby [on Rails]


Ruby and Metasploit, you propably already notice one of that or maybe both of them. Ruby on Rails is one of Web Application Framework build on Ruby Language Programming which have MVC (Model-View-Controller) as it’s framework concept. How about Ruby?! Ruby is another kind of language programming, announce by ” ” in , Ruby is a Full Object Oriented language programming, supported by thousands component library called gems, supported by a large community around the world, and now have place in most country in the world as a web framework to build the new era web concept, Web 2.0. I think this enough to describe Ruby and Rails. now let’s talk about MetaSploit Framework.

MetaSploit Framework is one of most populer Penetration Test and Hacking Tools in this time, it consists hundreds exploits modules, with some payloads function and another customize auxiliary. and also MetaSploit is a ready to use and easy to use Hacking Tools, formerly it have several operate mode, Console, Web and know it have GUI version. Before current version realease, in earlier version, Metasploit build not with Ruby, but it’s Perl Powered Application, but in Framework 3, all module and application re-build in Ruby. all exploits modules re-build in Ruby.


Cain & Abel, The Perfect Tools for Windows User


install and collect the data, password or acting like from another computer

from, this tool has increase popularity rank from 23 to 9.
with this tools you can do anything, from sniffing the network, cracking local password and the most thing that this tools can combine that, sniffing password from the network and crack it.

when you in a local area network which use a hub as switch, you will do almost all the tools ability. because the sniffing can be done from switch hub environment or from cable tap.

with the support of airpcap hardware and its driver you can gain access to the wireless network, from packet injection to cracking the wireless encryption.

sectools write this comment to this tools

Cain and Abel : The top password recovery tool for Windows

UNIX users often smugly assert that the best free security tools
support their platform first, and Windows ports are often an
afterthought. They are usually right, but Cain & Abel is a glaring
exception. This Windows-only password recovery tool handles an enormous
variety of tasks. It can recover passwords by sniffing the network,
cracking encrypted passwords using Dictionary, Brute-Force and
Cryptanalysis attacks, recording VoIP conversations, decoding scrambled
passwords, revealing password boxes, uncovering cached passwords and
analyzing routing protocols. It is also well documented.

from its original site, it ha released the new version which has several feature and fixes Cain & Abel v4.9.8 released

New features:

– Added support for new AES-128bit Keyfobs in RSA SecurID Token Calculator.

– Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Password Extractor via ODBC.

– Fixed a bug in Internet Explorer 7 AutoComplete password decoder.

– Default HTTP users and passwords fields updated.

– Automatic recognition of AirPcap TX capability based on channels.

from the site, they describe this tool like this:

Cain & Abel is a password recovery tool for
Microsoft Operating Systems. It allows easy recovery of various kind of
passwords by sniffing the network, cracking encrypted passwords using
Dictionary, Brute-Force and Cryptanalysis attacks, recording VoIP
conversations, decoding scrambled passwords, recovering wireless
network keys, revealing password boxes, uncovering cached passwords and
analyzing routing protocols. The program does not exploit any software
vulnerabilities or bugs that could not be fixed with little effort. It
covers some security aspects/weakness present in protocol’s standards,
authentication methods and caching mechanisms; its main purpose is the
simplified recovery of passwords and credentials from various sources,
however it also ships some “non standard” utilities for Microsoft
Windows users.
Cain & Abel has been developed in the hope that it will be useful for
network administrators, teachers, security consultants/professionals, forensic
staff, security software vendors, professional penetration tester and everyone
else that plans to use it for ethical reasons. The author will not help or support
any illegal activity done with this program. Be warned that there is the possibility
that you will cause damages and/or loss of data using this software and that
in no events shall the author be liable for such damages or loss of data. Please
carefully read the License Agreement included in the program before using
The latest version is faster and contains a lot of new features
like APR (Arp Poison Routing) which enables sniffing on switched LANs and Man-in-the-Middle
attacks. The sniffer in this version can also analyze encrypted
protocols such as SSH-1 and HTTPS, and contains filters to capture credentials
from a wide range of authentication mechanisms. The new version also ships routing protocols authentication
monitors and routes extractors, dictionary and brute-force crackers for all common hashing algorithms and
for several specific authentications, password/hash calculators, cryptanalysis
attacks, password decoders and  some not so common utilities related to
network and system security.

for completed documentation you can read the documentation area here

__original site

and you can download it from :

Found anotherthing interesting.. “The Dark Game”


long time not play this “game”… after several month not update my collection, last week some boy ask me about my collection and my suggestion ’bout this “game”.. after digging my burried stuff, reading and googling  i found this site :   and bring me back to my lost site  .

after i read that blog and searching2 on thus site, i found that all my collection listed there, i didn’t notice that coz in long2 time ago i never read thus site.

after updating my collection, i re-write  all my step for playing this kind of game:

  1. First Step : Discovering
    • Overview :
    • doing this step, u will try to finding the whole network, to map the network, to know the routing map, to know what behind the router machine, to know how clever the network administrator
    • this step to  uncover how  large is the internal network, and the network map
  2. Tools:
    • FoundStone Superscan4 (win32)
    • IP Angry Scanner            (win32)
    • Nmap                             (nux+win32)
    • GFI Languard                  (win32)
    • Cheops NG                     (linux)
    • SNMP-utils
  3. Second Step : Identifiying n Gathering Information
    • Overview :
    • after you know how large the network, the network map and the routing table, next thing to do is identifying and gathering information.
    • this step needed to know the network more details,  about the router information and firewall behind the router.
    • also to let you choose your potensial target
  4. Tools:
    • Nmap                              (nux+win32)
    • Nessus                            (nux+win32)
    • GFI Languard                   (win32)
    • Cheops NG                      (linux)
  5. Third Step : Check The Target Vulneralbility
    • Overview:
    • after you know your target, u need to know more details about your target.
    • the difference from previous step is this step is more to individual target rather to a whole network.
  6. Tools:
    • Nmap                              (nux+win32)
    • Nessus                            (nux+win32)
    • GFI Languard                   (win32)
    • Cheops NG                      (linux)
    • Nikto
  7. Fourth Step : Execute the Stuff
    • Overview:
    • after gathering information about the target and it’s vulnerability, now is your turn to play the game
    • choose your powerfull exploits (choose The Framework or Individual Exploit)
    • remember, don’t use your own node to do this. find another node to jump to your target.
  8. Tools:
    • Metasploit Framework
    • Canvas
    • Core Impact
    • or Individual Exploits
  9. Fifth Step : Securing the Action
    • Overview:
    • after successfully break into the target, remember always choose a action which not leave an evidance can be use to track you down.
    • suggestion: just bind a shell and create a listening port on target
    • remember, don’t use your own node to do this. find another node to jump to your target.
  10. Tools:
    • use TFTP protocol (tftp server + client) most OS support this protocol
  11. Sixth Step : Plant  the stuff
    • Overview:
    • After Successfully get into your target, do what u want there, but always remember not do this on your node, find another jumper place to do this.
  12. Tools:
    • Windows Registry => play fun with this stuff, just doing right thing with that , or u will crashing the target on next restart.
    • Windows Registry + Windows Service => choose an usual name or general name to covering your track
    • Root Kit for Linux, for this stuff i can’t tell much ’bout it, u can try to find it on the net
  13. Seventh Step :Covering the Action
    • Overview:
    • After Successfully get into your target, do what u want there, but always remember not do this on your node, find another jumper place to do this.
    • remember, don’t use your own node to do this. find another node to jump to your target.
    • don’t learn to hack, but hack to learn

i think this step is enough to play with this kind of “GAME”, do it for your own responsibility, i can’t guarantee for this stuff and this action.

with loves, with efforts, with knowledges
knowing the best for ur best

Securing your Network and Track down The Intruder


After i write down all my knowledges bout the “Dark Game”, this time i’ll explain how to break down and tracking the Intruder who play this Game.

This knowledges, i discover by my self, coz a long time ago i didn’t know about a blog or resource which covering this action.

in this action we will cover a few point to break down and track down the intruder, such as:

  1. IDS or Intrussion Detection System (sniffing the net)
    • Overview :
    • IDS or known as Intrussion Detection System, used by system or network administrator to check all anomaly usage on the network, to a server or the whole network
    • The main action of an IDS is sniffing all packet through the network, and auditing all the packet, is there something strange or unusual or matching with intrussion pattern
    • Give a complete report to system/network administrator ’bout the anomaly and the intruder
  2. Tools:
    • SNORT, the most known IDS application is Snort => , snort will cover all u need for this purpose
    • Symantect Client Security, for third party which need some extra money to get is Symantect Client Security, but this packet software is intregated with the firewall and i can say this is the perfect one for an individual computer on the net, not covering all the network but perfect on single workstation
    • HoneyNet, this tools has basic purpose to sniff the net but don’t have ability to report an intruder.
    • WireShark a.k.a Ethereal same function with HoneyNet with much interesting GUI and much more Function to auditing packet
  3. Network Traffic
    • Overview:
    • from the network traffic we will know is there an anomaly usage @ our network or not, coz with the normal traffic, i think there is a small possibilities there will be an intruder @ our network, but if there is an intruder @ our network the network traffic will fluctuated.
    • an anomaly behaviour will be there if intruder want to know more about our network or our resource
  4. Tools:
    • NetLoad
    • NetStat
    • Iptraff
    • most the tools is designed for nix system, but i’ll try to find the tools for win32 environment
  5. Log Forensics
    • Overview:
    • from log you’ll know everything more detail bout your box and your network
  6. Tools
    • log reader or something like that
    • i don’t have any experience bout tools which can make me happy with a bunch of log file, coz i love to read it manually
  7. IPS
    • Overview :
    • Intrussion Prevention System, the extended system of IDS, which make your jobs more lighter, more simple, this system will help you securing the network and the machine automatically. coz this system have the ability of an IDS + Tough Firewall system and some script to configure it.
  8. Tools :
    • i recommend u symantec client security for individual box on the network.
    • for the network u can use the Snort master and an snortsam + iptables
  9. Firewall
    • Overview:
    • this system ability is to protect ur network from intruders, securing your network and your  machine, keep your network safe from DoS (Denial of Service)
    • filtering user for accessing your resource
    • and make sure all packet flow on your network is harmless
  10. Tools :
    • Netfilter
    • Iptables
    • Ipchains
    • et

I think this few overview is enough for you to get prepare from the intruder, next post i’ll try to explain how to break this secure system and armed the network from intruders.

with loves, with efforts, with knowledges
knowing the best for ur best

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